Publications - Yale Metal Geochemistry Center

Below are publications from the Planavsky Group. Publications from the Rooney Group can be found at

In review

Hull, P., Shankle, M., Burls, N., Fedorov, A., Thomas, M., Penman, D., Ford, H., Jacobs, P., Planavsky, N. (in review). Decoupling of temperature and pH gradients along the equatorial Pacific during the Pliocene. Nature Research

Lipp, A., Shorttle, O., Sperling, E., Brocks, J. J., Cole, D., Crockford, P., Del Mouro, L., Dewing, K., Dornbos, S. Q., Emmings, J. F. (in review). The composition and weathering of the continents over geologic time. Geochemical Perspectives Letters

Syverson, D. D., Reinhard, C. T., Isson, T. T., Holstege, C., Katchinoff, J., Tutolo, B. M., Etschmann, B., Brugger, J., Planavsky, N. J. (in review). Anoxic weathering of mafic oceanic crust promotes atmospheric oxygenation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters


Shen, J., Chen, J., Algeo, T. J., Feng, Q., Yu, J., Xu, Y. G., Xu, G., Lei, Y., Planavsky, N. J., Xie, S. (2020). Mercury fluxes record regional volcanism in the South China craton prior to the end-Permian mass extinction. Geology.

Crockford, P. W., Kunzmann, M., Blättler, C. L., Kalderon-Asael, B., Murphy, J. G., Ahm, A. S., Sharoni, S., Halverson, G. P., Planavsky, N. P., Halevy, I., Higgins, J. A. (2020). Reconstructing Neoproterozoic seawater chemistry from early diagenetic dolomite. Geology.

Fakhraee, M., Planavsky, N. J., Reinhard, C. T. (2020). The role of environmental factors in the long-term evolution of the marine biological pump. Nature Geoscience, 13(12), 812-816.

Wang, X., Ossa, F. O., Hofmann, A., Agangi, A., Paprika, D., Planavsky, N. J. (2020). Uranium isotope evidence for Mesoarchean biological oxygen production in shallow marine and continental settings. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 551, 116583.

Beaty, B. J., Planavsky, N. J. (2020). A 3 by record of a biotic influence on terrestrial weathering. Geology.

Washington, K. E., West, A. J., Kalderon-Asael, B., Katchinoff, J. A., Stevenson, E. I., Planavsky, N. J. (2020). Lithium isotope composition of modern and fossilized Cenozoic brachiopods. Geology, 48(11), 1058-1061.

Zhang, F., Lenton, T. M., del Rey, Á., Romaniello, S. J., Chen, X., Planavsky, N. J., Clarkson, M. O., Dahl, T. W., Lau, K. V., Wang, W., Li, Z., Zhao, M., Isson, T., Algeo, T. J., Anbar, A. D. (2020). Uranium isotopes in marine carbonates as a global ocean paleoredox proxy: A critical review. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 287, 27-49.

Slagter, S., Tarhan, L. G., Hao, W., Planavsky, N. J., Konhauser, K. O. (2020). Experimental evidence supports early silica cementation of the Ediacara Biota. Geology, 49(1), 51-55.

Zhao, M., Planavsky, N., Oehlert, A. M., Wei, G., Gong, Z. (2020). Simulating meteoric and mixing zone carbonate diagenesis with a two-dimensional reactive transport model. American Journal of Science, 320(7), 599-636.

Wei, G. Y., Planavsky, N. J., Tarhan, L. G., He, T., Wang, D., Shields, G. A., Wei, W., Ling, H. F. (2020). Highly dynamic marine redox state through the Cambrian explosion highlighted by authigenic δ238U records. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 544, 116361.

Yan, H., Pi, D., Jiang, S. Y., Hao, W., Cui, H., Robbins, L. J., Mänd, K., Li, L., Planavsky, N. J., and Konhauser, K. O. (2020). Hydrothermally induced 34S enrichment in pyrite as an alternative explanation of the Late-Devonian sulfur isotope excursion in South China. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 283, 1-21.

Planavsky, N. J., Robbins, L. J., Kamber, B. S., & Schoenberg, R. (2020). Weathering, alteration and reconstructing Earth’s oxygenation. Interface Focus, 10(4), 20190140.

Cole, D. B., Planavsky, N. J., Longley, M., Böning, P., Wilkes, D., Wang, X., Swanner. E. D., Wittkop, C., Loydell, D. K., Busigny, V., Knudsen, A. C., Sperling, E. A. (2020). Uranium isotope fractionation in non‐sulfidic anoxic settings and the global uranium isotope mass balance. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 34(8), e2020GB006649.

O’Connell, B., Wallace, M. W., vS Hood, A., Lechte, M. A., Planavsky, N. J. (2020). Iron-rich carbonate tidal deposits, Angepena Formation, South Australia: A redox-stratified Cryogenian basin. Precambrian Research, 342, 105668.

Reinhard, C. T., & Planavsky, N. J. (2020). Biogeochemical controls on the redox evolution of Earth’s oceans and atmosphere. Elements, 16(3), 191-196.

Zhao, M., Zhang, S., Tarhan, L. G., Reinhard, C. T., & Planavsky, N. (2020). The role of calcium in regulating marine phosphorus burial and atmospheric oxygenation. Nature communications, 11(1), 1-8.

Planavsky, N. J., Reinhard, C. T., Isson, T. T., Ozaki, K., Crockford, P. W. (2020). Large mass-independent oxygen isotope fractionations in mid-Proterozoic sediments: Evidence for a low-oxygen atmosphere? Astrobiology, 20(5), 628-636.

Cole, D. B., Mills, D. B., Erwin, D. H., Sperling, E. A., Porter, S. M., Reinhard, C. T., & Planavsky, N. J. (2020). On the co‐evolution of surface oxygen levels and animals. Geobiology, 18(3), 260-281.

Stockey, R. G., Cole, D. B., Planavsky, N. J., Loydell, D. K., Frýda, J., & Sperling, E. A. (2020). Persistent global marine euxinia in the early Silurian. Nature Communications, 11(1), 1-10.

Mänd, K., Lalonde, S. V., Robbins, L. J., Thoby, M., Paiste, K., Kreitsmann, T., Paiste, P., Reinhard, C. T., Romashkin, A. E., Planavsky, A. J., Kirsimäe, K., Lepland, A., Konhauser, K.O. (2020). Palaeoproterozoic oxygenated oceans following the Lomagundi–Jatuli Event. Nature Geoscience, 13(4), 302-306.

Reinhard, C. T., Planavsky, N. J., Ward, B. A., Love, G. D., Le Hir, G., & Ridgwell, A. (2020). The impact of marine nutrient abundance on early eukaryotic ecosystems. Geobiology, 18(2), 139-151.

Zhang, F., Dahl, T. W., Lenton, T. M., Luo, G., Shen, S. Z., Algeo, T. J., Planavsky, N. J., Liu, J., Cui, Y., Qie, W., Romaniello, S. J., Anbar, A. D. (2020). Extensive marine anoxia associated with the Late Devonian Hangenberg Crisis. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 533, 115976.

Dellinger, M., Hardisty, D. S., Planavsky, N. J., Gill, B. C., Kalderon-Asael, B., Asael, D., Croissant, T., Swart, P. K., West, A. J. (2020). The effects of diagenesis on lithium isotope ratios of shallow marine carbonates. American Journal of Science, 320(2), 150-184.

Isson, T. T., Planavsky, N. J., Coogan, L. A., Stewart, E. M., Ague, J. J., Bolton, E. W., Zhang, S., McKenzie, N. R., Kump, L. R. (2020). Evolution of the global carbon cycle and climate regulation on Earth. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 34(2), e2018GB006061.

Brüske, A., Weyer, S., Zhao, M. Y., Planavsky, N. J., Wegwerth, A., Neubert, N., Dellwig, O., Lau, K. V., Lyons, T. W. (2020). Correlated molybdenum and uranium isotope signatures in modern anoxic sediments: Implications for their use as paleo-redox proxy. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 270, 449-474.

Bauer, K. W., Planavsky, N. J., Reinhard, C. T., Cole, D. B. (2020). The chromium isotope system as a tracer of ocean and atmosphere redox. Elements in Geochemical Tracers in Earth System Science. Cambridge Elements.

Zhang, S., & Planavsky, N. J. (2020). Revisiting groundwater carbon fluxes to the ocean with implications for the carbon cycle. Geology, 48(1), 67-71.

Konhauser, K. O., Hao, W., Li, Y., von Gunten, K., Bishop, B. A., Alessi, D. S., Tarhan, L. G., O’Connell, B., Robbins, L. J., Planavsky, N. J., Gingras, M. K. (2020). Diopatra cuprea worm burrow parchment: a cautionary tale of infaunal surface reactivity. Lethaia, 53(1), 47-61.


von Strandmann, P. A. P., Schmidt, D. N., Planavsky, N. J., Wei, G., Todd, C. L., & Baumann, K. H. (2019). Assessing bulk carbonates as archives for seawater Li isotope ratios. Chemical Geology, 530, 119338.

Bauer, K. W., Cole, D. B., Asael, D., Francois, R., Calvert, S. E., Poulton, S. W., Planavsky, N. J., Crowe, S. A. (2019). Chromium isotopes in marine hydrothermal sediments. Chemical Geology, 529, 119286.

Lechte, M. A., Wallace, M. W., van Smeerdijk Hood, A., Li, W., Jiang, G., Halverson, G. P., Asael, D., McColl, S. L., Planavsky, N. J. (2019). Subglacial meltwater supported aerobic marine habitats during Snowball Earth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(51), 25478-25483.

Shen, J., Yu, J., Chen, J., Algeo, T. J., Xu, G., Feng, Q., Shi, X., Planavsky, N. J., Shu, W., Xie, S. (2019). Mercury evidence of intense volcanic effects on land during the Permian-Triassic transition. Geology, 47(12), 1117-1121.

del Rey, Á., Deckart, K., Planavsky, N., Arriagada, C., & Martínez, F. (2019). Tectonic evolution of the southwestern margin of Pangea and its global implications: Evidence from the mid Permian–Triassic magmatism along the Chilean-Argentine border. Gondwana Research, 76, 303-321.

Henehan, M. J., Ridgwell, A., Thomas, E., Zhang, S., Alegret, L., Schmidt, D. N., Rae, J. W. B., Witts, J. D., Landman, N. H., Greene, S. E., Huber, B. T., Super, J. R., Planavsky, N. J., Hull, P. M. (2019). Rapid ocean acidification and protracted Earth system recovery followed the end-Cretaceous Chicxulub impact. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(45), 22500-22504.

Colwyn, D. A., Sheldon, N. D., Maynard, J. B., Gaines, R., Hofmann, A., Wang, X., Gueguen, B., Asael, D., Reinhard, C. T., Planavsky, N. J. (2019). A paleosol record of the evolution of Cr redox cycling and evidence for an increase in atmospheric oxygen during the Neoproterozoic. Geobiology, 17(6), 579-593.

Stewart, E. M., Ague, J. J., Ferry, J. M., Schiffries, C. M., Tao, R. B., Isson, T. T., & Planavsky, N. J. (2019). Carbonation and decarbonation reactions: Implications for planetary habitability. American Mineralogist, 104(10), 1369-1380.

Ostrander, C. M., Sahoo, S. K., Kendall, B., Jiang, G., Planavsky, N. J., Lyons, T. W., Nielsen, S. G., Owens, J. D., Gordon, G. W., Romaniello, S. J., Anbar, A. D. (2019). Multiple negative molybdenum isotope excursions in the Doushantuo Formation (South China) fingerprint complex redox-related processes in the Ediacaran Nanhua Basin. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 261, 191-209.

Galili, N., Shemesh, A., Yam, R., Brailovsky, I., Sela-Adler, M., Schuster, E. M., Collom, C., Bekker, A., Planavsky, N. J., Macdonald, F. A., Préat, A., Rudmin, M., Trela, W., Sturesson, U., Heikoop, J. M., Aurell, M., Ramajo, J., Halevy, I. (2019). The geologic history of seawater oxygen isotopes from marine iron oxides. Science, 365(6452), 469-473.

Shen, J., Algeo, T. J., Planavsky, N. J., Yu, J., Feng, Q., Song, H., Rowe, H., Zhou, L., Chen, J. (2019). Mercury enrichments provide evidence of Early Triassic volcanism following the end-Permian mass extinction. Earth-Science Reviews, 195, 191-212.

Wang, X., Glass, J. B., Reinhard, C. T., Planavsky, N. J. (2019). Species‐dependent chromium isotope fractionation across the eastern tropical North Pacific oxygen minimum zone. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 20(5), 2499-2514.

Shen, J., Chen, J., Algeo, T. J., Yuan, S., Feng, Q., Yu, J., Zhou, L., O’Connell, B., Planavsky, N. J. (2019). Evidence for a prolonged Permian–Triassic extinction interval from global marine mercury records. Nature Communications, 10(1), 1-9.

Gothmann, A. M., Higgins, J. A., Adkins, J. F., Broecker, W., Farley, K. A., McKeon, R., Stolarski, J., Planavsky, N. J., Wang, X., Bender, M. L. (2019). A Cenozoic record of seawater uranium in fossil corals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 250, 173-190.

Shen, J., Algeo, T. J., Chen, J., Planavsky, N. J., Feng, Q., Yu, J., Liu, J. (2019). Mercury in marine Ordovician/Silurian boundary sections of South China is sulfide-hosted and non-volcanic in origin. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 511, 130-140.

Sun, Z., Wang, X., Planavsky, N. (2019). Cr isotope systematics in the Connecticut River estuary. Chemical Geology, 506, 29-39.

Bellefroid, E. J., Planavsky, N. J., Hood, A. V., Halverson, G. P., & Spokas, K. (2019). Shallow water redox conditions of the mid-Proterozoic Muskwa Assemblage, British Columbia, Canada. American Journal of Science, 319(2), 122-157.

Zhang, S., Planavsky, N. J. (2019). The silicate weathering feedback in the context of ophiolite emplacement: Insights from an inverse model of global weathering proxies. American Journal of Science, 319(2), 75-104.

Jiang, L., Planavsky, N., Zhao, M., Liu, W., Wang, X. (2019). Authigenic origin for a massive negative carbon isotope excursion. Geology, 47(2), 115-118.


Busigny, V., Planavsky, N. J., Goldbaum, E., Lechte, M. A., Feng, L., Lyons, T. W. (2018). Origin of the Neoproterozoic Fulu iron formation, South China: Insights from iron isotopes and rare earth element patterns. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 242, 123-142.

Bellefroid, E. J., Planavsky, N. J., Miller, N. R., Brand, U., & Wang, C. (2018). Case studies on the utility of sequential carbonate leaching for radiogenic strontium isotope analysis. Chemical Geology, 497, 88-99.

Krause, A. J., Mills, B. J., Zhang, S., Planavsky, N. J., Lenton, T. M., Poulton, S. W. (2018). Stepwise oxygenation of the Paleozoic atmosphere. Nature communications, 9(1), 1-10.

Wang, X., Planavsky, N. J., Hofmann, A., Saupe, E. E., De Corte, B. P., Philippot, P., Lalonde, S. V., Jemison, N. E., Zou, H., Ossa Ossa, F., Rybacki, K., Alfimova, N., Larson, M. J., Tsikos, H., Fralick, P. W., Johnson, T. M., Knudsen, A. C., Reinhard, C. T., Konhauser, K. O. (2018). A Mesoarchean shift in uranium isotope systematics. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 238, 438-452.

Cole, D. B., O’Connell, B., & Planavsky, N. J. (2018). Authigenic chromium enrichments in Proterozoic ironstones. Sedimentary Geology, 372, 25-43.

Planavsky, N. J., Cole, D. B., Isson, T. T., Reinhard, C. T., Crockford, P. W., Sheldon, N. D., & Lyons, T. W. (2018). A case for low atmospheric oxygen levels during Earth’s middle history. Emerging Topics in Life Sciences, 2(2), 149-159.

Bellefroid, E. J., Hood, A. V. S., Hoffman, P. F., Thomas, M. D., Reinhard, C. T., & Planavsky, N. J. (2018). Constraints on Paleoproterozoic atmospheric oxygen levels. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(32), 8104-8109.

Mloszewska, A. M., Cole, D. B., Planavsky, N. J., Kappler, A., Whitford, D. S., Owttrim, G. W., Konhauser, K. O. (2018). UV radiation limited the expansion of cyanobacteria in early marine photic environments. Nature Communications, 9(1), 1-8.

Wei, G. Y., Planavsky, N. J., Tarhan, L. G., Chen, X., Wei, W., Li, D., Ling, H. F. (2018). Marine redox fluctuation as a potential trigger for the Cambrian explosion. Geology, 46(7), 587-590.

Isson, T. T., & Planavsky, N. J. (2018). Reverse weathering as a long-term stabilizer of marine pH and planetary climate. Nature, 560(7719), 471-475.

Miyazaki, Y., Planavsky, N. J., Bolton, E. W., Reinhard, C. T. (2018). Making sense of massive carbon isotope excursions with an inverse carbon cycle model. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 123(8), 2485-2496.

Li, Z. Q., Zhang, L. C., Xue, C. J., Zheng, M. T., Zhu, M. T., Robbins, L. J., Slack, J. F., Planavsky, N. J., Konhauser, K. O. (2018). Earth’s youngest banded iron formation implies ferruginous conditions in the Early Cambrian ocean. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 1-10.

Crockford, P. W., Hayles, J. A., Bao, H., Planavsky, N. J., Bekker, A., Fralick, P. W., Halverson, G. P., Bui, T. H., Peng, Y., Wing, B. A. (2018). Triple oxygen isotope evidence for limited mid-Proterozoic primary productivity. Nature, 559(7715), 613-616.

Isson, T. T., Love, G. D., Dupont, C. L., Reinhard, C. T., Zumberge, A. J., Asael, D., Gueguen, B., McCrow, J., Gill, B. C., Owens, J., Rainbird, R. H., Rooney, A. D., Zhao, M.-Y., Stueeken, E. E., Konhauser, K. O., John, S. G., Lyons, T. W., Planavsky, N. J. (2018). Tracking the rise of eukaryotes to ecological dominance with zinc isotopes. Geobiology, 16(4), 341-352.

Hood, A. S., Planavsky, N. J., Wallace, M. W., & Wang, X. (2018). The effects of diagenesis on geochemical paleoredox proxies in sedimentary carbonates. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 232, 265-287.

Jin, C., Li, C., Algeo, T. J., O’Connell, B., Cheng, M., Shi, W., Shen, J., Planavsky, N. J. (2018). Highly heterogeneous “poikiloredox” conditions in the early Ediacaran Yangtze Sea. Precambrian Research, 311, 157-166.

Lechte, M. A., Wallace, M. W., van Smeerdijk Hood, A., & Planavsky, N. (2018). Cryogenian iron formations in the glaciogenic Kingston Peak Formation, California. Precambrian Research, 310, 443-462.

Zhang, S., Planavsky, N. J., Krause, A. J., Bolton, E. W., & Mills, B. J. (2018). Model based Paleozoic atmospheric oxygen estimates: a revisit to GEOCARBSULF. American Journal of Science, 318(5), 557-589.

Hardisty, D. S., Lyons, T. W., Riedinger, N., Isson, T. T., Owens, J. D., Aller, R. C., Rye, D. M., Planavsky, N. J., Reinhard, C. T., Gill, B. C., Masterson, A. L., Asael, D., Johnston, D. T. (2018). An evaluation of sedimentary molybdenum and iron as proxies for pore fluid paleoredox conditions. American Journal of Science, 318(5), 527-556.

Diamond, C. W., Planavsky, N. J., Wang, C., & Lyons, T. W. (2018). What the~ 1.4 Ga Xiamaling Formation can and cannot tell us about the mid‐Proterozoic ocean. Geobiology, 16(3), 219-236.

Raiswell, R., Hardisty, D. S., Lyons, T. W., Canfield, D. E., Owens, J. D., Planavsky, N. J., … & Reinhard, C. T. (2018). The iron paleoredox proxies: A guide to the pitfalls, problems and proper practice. American Journal of Science, 318(5), 491-526.

Konhauser, K. O., Robbins, L. J., Alessi, D. S., Flynn, S. L., Gingras, M. K., Martinez, R. E., Kappler, A., Swanner, E. D., Li, Y.-L., Crowe, S. A., Planavsky, N. J., Reinhard, C. T., Lalonde, S. V. (2018). Phytoplankton contributions to the trace-element composition of Precambrian banded iron formations. Bulletin, 130(5-6), 941-951.

Planavsky, N. J., Slack, J. F., Cannon, W. F., O’Connell, B., Isson, T. T., Asael, D., Jackson, J. C., Hardisty, D. S., Lyons, T. W., Bekker, A. (2018). Evidence for episodic oxygenation in a weakly redox-buffered deep mid-Proterozoic ocean. Chemical Geology, 483, 581-594.

Ossa, F. O., Eickmann, B., Hofmann, A., Planavsky, N. J., Asael, D., Pambo, F., Bekker, A. (2018). Two-step deoxygenation at the end of the Paleoproterozoic Lomagundi Event. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 486, 70-83.

Bauer, K. W., Gueguen, B., Cole, D. B., Francois, R., Kallmeyer, J., Planavsky, N., & Crowe, S. A. (2018). Chromium isotope fractionation in ferruginous sediments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 223, 198-215.

Zhao, M., Reinhard, C. T., Planavsky, N. (2018). Terrestrial methane fluxes and Proterozoic climate. Geology, 46(2), 139-142.

Liu, K., Feng, Q., Shen, J., Khan, M., Planavsky, N. J. (2018). Increased productivity as a primary driver of marine anoxia in the Lower Cambrian. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 491, 1-9.

Colleps, C. L., McKenzie, N. R., Stockli, D. F., Hughes, N. C., Singh, B. P., Webb, A. G., Myrow, P. M., Planavsky, N. J., Horton, B. K. (2018). Zircon (U‐Th)/He thermochronometric constraints on Himalayan Thrust Belt exhumation, bedrock weathering, and Cenozoic seawater chemistry. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 19(1), 257-271.

Cole, D. B., Wang, X., Qin, L., Planavsky, N. J., Reinhard, C. T. (2018). Chromium isotopes. Encyclopedia of Geochemistry. Springer International Publishing.

Tarhan, L. G., Planavsky, N. J., Wang, X., Bellefroid, E. J., Droser, M. L., Gehling, J. G. (2018). The late‐stage “ferruginization” of the Ediacara Member (Rawnsley Quartzite, South Australia): Insights from uranium isotopes. Geobiology, 16(1), 35-48.


Gaschnig, R. M., Reinhard, C. T., Planavsky, N. J., Wang, X., Asael, D., Chauvel, C. (2017). The molybdenum isotope system as a tracer of slab input in subduction zones: An example from Martinique, Lesser Antilles Arc. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 18(12), 4674-4689.

Saad, E. M., Wang, X., Planavsky, N. J., Reinhard, C. T., Tang, Y. (2017). Redox-independent chromium isotope fractionation induced by ligand-promoted dissolution. Nature Communications, 8(1), 1-10.

Rao, V. S., Planavsky, N., Hanberg, J. S., Ahmad, T., Brisco-Bacik, M. A., Wilson, F. P., Jacoby, D., Chen, M., Tang, W. H. W., Cherney, D. Z., Ellison, D. H., Testani, J. M. (2017). Compensatory distal reabsorption drives diuretic resistance in human heart failure. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 28(11), 3414-3424.

Stüeken, E. E., Buick, R., Anderson, R. E., Baross, J. A., Planavsky, N. J., Lyons, T. W. (2017). Environmental niches and metabolic diversity in Neoarchean lakes. Geobiology, 15(6), 767-783.

Cole, D. B., Zhang, S., Planavsky, N. J. (2017). A new estimate of detrital redox-sensitive metal concentrations and variability in fluxes to marine sediments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 215, 337-353.

Konhauser, K. O., Planavsky, N. J., Hardisty, D. S., Robbins, L. J., Warchola, T. J., Haugaard, R., Lalonde, S. V., Partin, C. A., Oonk, P. B. H., Tsikos, H., Lyons, T. W., Bekker, A., Johnson, C. M. (2017). Iron formations: A global record of Neoarchaean to Palaeoproterozoic environmental history. Earth-Science Reviews, 172, 140-177.

McCoy, V. E., Asael, D., Planavsky, N. (2017). Benthic iron cycling in a high‐oxygen environment: Implications for interpreting the Archean sedimentary iron isotope record. Geobiology, 15(5), 619-627.

Li, C., Jin, C., Planavsky, N. J., Algeo, T. J., Cheng, M., Yang, X., Zhao, Y., Xie, S. (2017). Coupled oceanic oxygenation and metazoan diversification during the early–middle Cambrian? Geology, 45(8), 743-746.

Stueeken, E. E., Bellefroid, E., Prave, A. R., Asael, D., Planavsky, N., Lyons, T. (2017). Not so non-marine? Revisiting the Stoer Group and the Mesoproterozoic biosphere. Geochemical Perspectives Letters.

Korenaga, J., Planavsky, N. J., Evans, D. A. (2017). Global water cycle and the coevolution of the Earth’s interior and surface environment. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 375(2094), 20150393.

Wallace, M. W., Shuster, A., Greig, A., Planavsky, N. J., Reed, C. P. (2017). Oxygenation history of the Neoproterozoic to early Phanerozoic and the rise of land plants. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 466, 12-19.

Wu, W., Wang, X., Reinhard, C. T., & Planavsky, N. J. (2017). Chromium isotope systematics in the Connecticut River. Chemical Geology, 456, 98-111.

Louyakis, A. S., Mobberley, J. M., Vitek, B. E., Visscher, P. T., Hagan, P. D., Reid, R. P., Kozdon, R., Orland, I. J., Valley, J. W., Planavsky, N. J., Casaburi, G., Foster, J. S.. (2017). A study of the microbial spatial heterogeneity of Bahamian thrombolites using molecular, biochemical, and stable isotope analyses. Astrobiology, 17(5), 413-430.

Hardisty, D. S., Lu, Z., Bekker, A., Diamond, C. W., Gill, B. C., Jiang, G., Kah, L. C., Knoll, A. H., Lloyd, S. J., Osburn, M. R., Planavsky, N. J., Wang, C., Zhou, X., Lyons, T. W. (2017). Perspectives on Proterozoic surface ocean redox from iodine contents in ancient and recent carbonate. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 463, 159-170.

Fralick, P., Planavsky, N., Burton, J., Jarvis, I., Addison, W. D., Barrett, T. J., Brumpton, G. R. (2017). Geochemistry of Paleoproterozoic Gunflint Formation carbonate: Implications for hydrosphere-atmosphere evolution. Precambrian Research, 290, 126-146.

Zhang, S., Henehan, M. J., Hull, P. M., Reid, R. P., Hardisty, D. S., Hood, A. S., Planavsky, N. J. (2017). Investigating controls on boron isotope ratios in shallow marine carbonates. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 458, 380-393.

Planavsky, N., Busigny, V. (2017). Stable iron isotopes. Encyclopedia of Geochemistry. Springer International Publishing.

Reinhard, C. T., Planavsky, N. J., Gill, B. C., Ozaki, K., Robbins, L. J., Lyons, T. W., Fischer, W. W., Wang, C., Cole, D. B., Konhauser, K. O. (2017). Evolution of the global phosphorus cycle. Nature, 541(7637), 386-389.

Wang, X. L., Planavsky, N. J., Hull, P. M., Tripati, A. E., Zou, H. J., Elder, L., Henehan, M. (2017). Chromium isotopic composition of core‐top planktonic foraminifera. Geobiology, 15(1), 51-64.


Henehan, Michael J., Hull, Pincelli M., Penman, Donald E., Rae, James W. B. Rae and Schmidt, Daniela N. (2016) Biogeochemical significance of pelagic ecosystem function: an end-Cretaceous case study. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 371: 20150510. [Link to article at publisher (open access)]

Cole, DB, Reinhard, CT, Wang, X, Gueguen, B, Halverson, GP, Lyons, TW, Planavsky, NJ, (2016) A shale-hosted Cr isotope record of low atmospheric oxygen during the Proterozoic. Geology.

Planavsky, NJ, Cole, DB, Reinhard, CT, Diamond, C, Love, GL, Zhang, S, Konhauser, K, Lyons, TW. (2016) No evidence for high atmospheric oxygen levels 1400 million years ago. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Evans, David B. J., Wade, Bridget S., Henehan, Michael J., Erez, Jonathan, and Müller, Wolfgang (2016) Revisiting carbonate chemistry controls on planktic foraminifera Mg/Ca: implications for sea surface temperature and hydrology shifts over the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum and Eocene–Oligocene Transition. Climate of the Past 12, 819-835. [Link to pdf]

Penman, D. E., Kirtland-Turner, S., Sexton, P., Boulila, S., Norris, D., Norris, R. D., Dickson, A. J., Boulila, S., Ridgwell, A., Zeebe, R. E., Zachos, J. C., Cameron, A., Westerhold, T., Röhl, U. (2016). A carbonate compensation depth overshoot in the aftermath of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, Nature Geoscience. Accepted.

Wang X., Planavsky N.J., Reinhard C.T., Hein J.R., Johnson T.M. (2016). Cenozoic seawater U isotopic composition recorded in ferromanganese crusts. American Journal of Science. 316, 64–83.

Wang X., Reinhard C.T., Planavsky N.J., Johnson T.M. (2016). Chromium isotopes track the extent of marine low-oxygen conditions during the Cenomanian-Turonian OAE2. Chemical Geology. 429, 85–92.

Wang X., Planavsky N.J., Reinhard C.T., Zou H., Ague J., Wu Y., Peucker-Ehrenbrink B. (2016). Chromium isotope effects associated with high temperature metamorphism, black shale weathering and hydrothermal alteration. Chemical Geology. 423, 19-33.


Uchikawa, J., Penman, D. E., Zeebe, R. E., Zachos, J. C. (2015), Experimental evidence for kinetic effects on B/Ca in synthetic calcite: Implications for potential B(OH)4- and B(OH)3 incorporation, Geochimica et Costmochimica Acta.

Li, C., Planavsky, NJ, Shi, W., Zhang, Z., Zhou, C, Cheng, Luo, G, and Xie, S, 2015, Ediacaran Marine Redox Heterogeneity and Early Animal Ecosystems. Scientific Reports. 5, 17097.

Marshall, Brittney J., Thunell, Robert C., Spero, Howard J., Henehan, Michael J., Lorenzoni, Laura and Astor, Yrene (2015) Morphometric and stable isotopic differentiation of Orbulina universa morphotypes from the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela. Marine Micropaleontology 120, 46-64. [Link to article at publisher][Link to pdf]

Planavsky, NJ, Tarhan, LG, Bellefroid, EJ, Evans, DA, Reinhard, CT, Love, GD, Lyons, TW, 2015, Late Proterozoic transitions in climate, oxygen, and tectonics, and the rise of complex life. In: Earth-Life Transitions: Paleobiology in the Context of Earth System Evolution. The Paleontological Society Papers, Volume 21, P. David Polly, Jason J. Head, and David L. Fox (eds.). Yale University Press, New Haven.

Henehan, Michael J., Foster, Gavin L., Rae, James W.B., Prentice, Katherine C., Erez, Jonathan, Bostock, Helen C., Marshall, Brittney J., and Wilson, Paul A. (2015) Evaluating the utility of B/Ca ratios in planktic foraminifera as a proxy for the carbonate system: A case study of Globigerinoides ruber. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 16(4), 1052-1069. [Link to article at publisher] [Link to pdf]

Partin, CA, Bekker, A., Planavsky, NJ, Lyons, TW, 2015, Euxinic conditions recorded in the ca. 1.93 Ga Bravo Lake Formation, Nunavut (Canada): Implications for oceanic redox evolution. Chemical Geology. 417, 148–162.

Li, C, Planavsky, NJ, Love, G, Reinhard, CT Hardisty; D, Feng, L, Bates, L, Huang, J, Zhang, Q, Chu, X, Lyons, TW, 2015, Ferruginous marine conditions and low oxidant concentrations in Middle Proterozoic oceans: Insights from a geochemical investigation of the Chuanlinggou Formation, Yanshan Basin, North China, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 150, 90-105.

Youm, YH, Nguyen, KY, Grant, R, Goldberg, E, Bodogai, E, Kim, D, D’Agostino, D, Planavsky, NJ, Lupfer, C, Kanneganti, TD, Horvath, T, Fahmy, T, Crawford, P, Biragyn, A, Alnemri, E, Dixit, VD, 2015 Ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate blocks NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammatory disease. Nature Medicine. 21, 263–269.

Thompson, D, Rainbird, RH, Planavsky, NJ, Lyons, TW, Bekker, A, 2015, Chemostratigraphy of the Shaler Supergroup, Victoria Island, NW Canada: record of ocean composition prior to the break-up of Rodinia. Precambrian Research, 263, 232-245.

Tarhan, LG, Droser, M, Planavsky, NJ, Johnston, D, 2015, Protracted development of the sediment mixed layer, Nature Geoscience. 8, 865–869.

Martínez-Botí, Miguel-Angel, Marino, Gianluca, Foster, Gavin L., Ziveri, Patrizia, Henehan, Michael J., Rae, James W. B., Mortyn, P. Graham, and Vance, Derek (2015) Boron isotope evidence for oceanic carbon dioxide leakage during the last deglaciation. Nature 518, 219-222. [Link to article at publisher] [Link to pdf]

Wang X., Johnson T.M., Lundstrom C.C. (2015) Isotope fractionation during oxidation of tetravalent uranium by dissolved oxygen. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta.150, 160-170.

Wang X., Johnson T.M., Ellis A.S. (2015) Equilibrium isotopic fractionation and isotopic exchange kinetics between Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 153, 72-90.

Wang X., Johnson T.M., Lundstrom C.C. (2015) Low Temperature Equilibrium Isotope Fractionation and Isotope Exchange Kinetics between U(IV) and U(VI). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 158, 262-275.

Hood, A.v.S., Wallace, M.W. (2015) Extreme ocean anoxia during the Late Cryogenian recorded in reefal carbonates of Southern Australia, Precambrian Research, 261, 96-111. [Link to article at publisher]


Planavsky N.J.*, Reinhard C.T.*, Wang X., Thomason D., McGoldrick P., Rainbird R.T., Johnson T.M., Fischer W.W., Lyons T.W. (2014) Low mid-Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen levels and the delayed rise of animals. Science. 346, 635-638. *Equal contribution authors

Reinhard C.T., Planavsky N.J., Wang X., Fischer W.W., Johnson T.M., Lyons T.W. (2014) The isotopic composition of authigenic chromium in anoxic marine sediments and controls on the chromium isotope composition of seawater. Earth and Planetary Science Letter 407, 9-18.

Planavsky, NJ, 2014. The elements of marine life. Nature Geoscience, 7, 855–856.

Hood, A.v.S., and Wallace M.W. (2014) Marine cements reveal the structure of an anoxic, ferruginous Neoproterozoic ocean. Journal of the Geological Society 171, 741-744. [Link to article at publisher]

Castro-Contreras, SI, Gingras, MR, Pecoits, E, Aubet, NR, Petrash, D, Castro-Contreras, SM, Planavsky, NJ, Konhauser, KO, 2014, Textural and geochemical features of freshwater microbialites from Laguna Bacalar, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Palaios. 29, 192-209

Busigny, V*, Planavsky, NJ* Jézéquel, D, Crowe, S, Louvat, P, Moureau, J. Viollier, E, Lyons, TW, 2014, Iron isotopes in an Archean ocean analogue, Geochimica et Cosmochimica, 133, 443-462. *Equal contribution authors

McKenzie, NR, Hughes, NC, Myrow, PM, Banerjee, DM, Deb, M, Planavsky, NJ, 2014. Reply to comment on “New age constraints for the Proterozoic Aravalli-Delhi successions of India and their implications” by Melezhik et al. Precambrian Research, 246, 371-372.

Lyons, TW, Reinhard, CR, Planavsky, NJ, 2014, Evolution: A Fixed-Nitrogen Fix in the Early Ocean? Current Biology, 24, R277.

Planavsky, NJ, Asael, D, Hofmann, A, Reinhard, CT, Lalonde, SV, Wang, X, Knudsen, A, Ossa Ossa, F, Bekker, A, Johnson, TM, Lyons, TW, Rouxel, OJ, 2014, Evidence for Oxygenic Photosynthesis Half a Billion Years Before the Great Oxidation Event, Nature Geoscience. 7, 283–286.

Swanner, ED, Planavsky, NJ, Lalonde, SV, Robbins, LJ, Bekker, A, Rouxel, OJ, Kappler, A, Mojzsis, SJ, and Konhauser, KO, 2014, Cobalt and marine redox evolution. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 390, 253–263.

Hardisty, DS, Lu, Z, Planavsky, NJ, Bekker, A, Zhou, X., Lyons TW, 2014, A Novel Iodine Record of Paleoproterozoic Surface Ocean Oxygenation. Geology, 42, 619-622

Lyons, TW, Reinhard, CR, Planavsky, NJ, 2014, The early rise of oxygen in the ocean and atmosphere. Nature. Nature 506, 307–31.

McKenzie, NR, Hughes, NC, Myrow, PM, Dhiraj, M, Banerjee, M, Deb, M, Planavsky, NJ, 2014, New detrital zircon age constraints on the Proterozoic Aravalli-Delhi successions of central India and their implications, Precambrian Research, 238, 120-128.

Scott, CT, Wing, BA, Bekker, A, Planavsky, NJ, Medvedev, P, Bates, SM, Yun, SM, Lyons, TW, 2014, Pyrite multiple-sulfur isotope evidence for rapid expansion and contraction of the early Paleoproterozoic seawater sulfate reservoir. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 389, 95-104

Partin, CA, Lalonde, SV, Planavsky, NJ, Bekker, A, Rouxel, OJ, Lyons, TW, Konhauser, KO, 2014, Uranium in iron formations and the rise of atmospheric oxygen. Chemical Geology, 362, 82-90.

Bekker, A, Planavsky, NJ, Krapež, B, Rasmussen, B, Hofmann, A, Slack, JF, Rouxel, OJ, Konhauser, K.O., 2014, Iron Formations: Their Origins and Implications for Ancient Seawater Chemistry, Treatise on Geochemistry. vol., 10.


Tarhan, LG, Planavsky, NJ, Reid, RP, 2013, Microbial mat control on infaunal abundance and diversity in modern marine microbialites, Geobiology. 11, 485-497.

Robbins, LJ, Lalonde, SV, Saito, M, Planavsky, NJ, Mloszewska, AM, Pecoits, E, Dupont, CL, Kappler, A, Konhauser, KO, 2013, Authigenic iron oxide proxies for marine Zinc over geological time and implications for eukaryotic metallome evolution, Geobiology, 11, 295-306.

Partin, C, Bekker, A, Planavsky, NJ, Gill, BG, Li, C, Podkovyrov, V, Maslov, A, Konhauser, KO, Lyons, TW, 2013, Large-scale fluctuations in Precambrian atmospheric and oceanic oxygen levels, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 369, 284–293.

Reinhard, CT, Planavsky, NJ, Robbins, LJ, Partin, C, Gill, GC, Lalonde, SV, Bekker, A, Konhauser, KO, Lyons, TW, 2013, Proterozoic ocean redox and evolutionary stasis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110, 5357-5363.

Reinhard, CR, Planavsky, NJ, Lyons, TW, 2013, Long-term sedimentary recycling of rare sulphur isotope anomalies and its significance for reconstructing atmospheric evolution, Nature. 497, 100-103.

Scott, CT, Planavsky, NJ, Dupont, CL, Kendall, B, Gill, B, Robbins. LJ, Bekker, A, Konhauser, KO, Anbar, A, Lyons, TW, 2013, Marine zinc bioavailability through time and eukaryotic metallome evolution, Nature Geoscience. 6, 123-125.

Huang, J, Chu, X, Lyons, TW, Planavsky, NJ, Wen, H, in 2013, A new look at saponite formation and early animal records in the Ediacaran of South China, Geobiology, 11, 3-14.


Planavsky, NJ, Bekker, A, Hofmann, A, Lyons, TW, 2012, Sulfur record of rising and falling marine oxygen and sulfate levels during the Lomagundi event. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 45 18300-18305.

Bekker, A, Krapež, B, Slack, JF, Planavsky, NJ, Hofmann, A, Konhauser, KO, Rouxel, OJ, 2012, Iron Formation: The sedimentary product of a complex interplay among mantle, tectonic, oceanic, and biospheric processes—a reply. Economic Geology, 107, 379-380.

Sahoo, SW, Planavsky, NJ, Kendall, B, Wang, X, Shi, X, Scott, C, Anbar, AD, Lyons, TW, Jiang, G, 2012, Ocean oxygenation in the wake of the Marinoan glaciation. Nature, 489, 546–549.

Planavsky, NJ, Rouxel, OJ, Bekker, A, Little, C, Hoffman, A, Lyons, TW, 2012, The iron isotope composition of some Archean and Paleoproterozoic iron formations. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 80, 158–169.

Hood, A.v.S, Wallace, M.W. (2012) Synsedimentary diagenesis in a Cryogenian reef complex: Ubiquitous marine dolomite precipitation. Sedimentary Geology, 255-256, p56-71. [Link to article at publisher]


Planavsky, NJ, McGoldrick, P, Scott, C, Li, C, Reinhard, CT, Kelly, A, Bekker, A, Love, G, Lyons, TW, 2011, Widespread Iron-rich Conditions in Mid-Proterozoic Oceans, Nature, 477, 448–451.

Reinhard, CR, Planavsky, NJ, 2011, Mineralogical constraints on Precambrian pCO2. Nature, 474, e3-4.

Planavsky, NJ, Partin, C, and Bekker, A, 2011, Carbon Isotopes as a Geochemical Tracer, In: Encyclopedia of Astrobiology, Springer-Verlag, 1600 p., p. 249-253.

Konhauser, KO, Lalonde, SV, Planavsky, NJ, Pecoits, E, Lyons, TW, Mojzsis, SJ, Rouxel, OJ, Barley, ME, Bekker, A, 2011, Aerobic bacterial pyrite oxidation and acid rock drainage during the Great Oxidation Event. Nature, 478, 369–373.

Hood, A.v.S, Wallace, M.W., and Drysdale, R.N. (2011) Neoproterozoic aragonite-dolomite seas?: Widespread marine dolomite precipitation in Cryogenian reef complexes, Geology, 39, p871-874. [Link to article at publisher]


Planavsky, NJ, Rouxel, OJ, Bekker, A, Lalonde, SV, Konhauser, KO, Reinhard, CR, Lyons, TW, 2010, Evolution of marine phosphate concentrations, Nature 467: 1088–1090.

Planavsky, NJ, Bekker, A, Rouxel, OJ, Kamber, B, Knudsen, AH, Lyons, TW, 2010, The rare earth element and yttrium composition of Archean and Paleoproterozoic iron formations revisited: A new perspective on significance and mechanisms of iron formation deposition: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 74: 6387-6405.

Bekker, A, Slack, JF, Planavsky, NJ, Krapež, B, Hofmann, A, Konhauser, KO, Rouxel, OJ, 2010, Iron Formation: The Sedimentary Product of a Complex Interplay Among Mantle, Tectonic, Oceanic, and Biospheric Processes. Economic Geology 105: 467-508.


Planavsky, NJ, 2009, Early Neoproterozoic origin of the metazoan clade recorded in carbonate rock texture: Comment, Geology, 37: e195.

Planavsky, NJ, Reid, RP, Myshrall, KL, Lyons, TW, Vischer, PT, 2009, Formation and diagenesis of modern marine calcified cyanobacteria, Geobiology, 7: 566 – 576.

Grey, K, Planavsky, NJ, 2009, Microbialites of Lake Thetis, Cervantes, Western Australia—A Field Guide. Geological Survey of Western Australia Publication. Perth, Australia.

Planavsky, NJ, Rouxel, O, Bekker, A, Shapiro, RS, Fralick, PF, Knudsen, A, 2009, Iron-oxidizing microbial ecosystems thrived in Paleoproterozoic redox-stratified oceans, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 286: 230-242.

Planavsky, NJ, Ginsburg, RN, 2009, The Taphonomy of Modern Marine Bahamian Microbialites, Palaios. 24: 5-18.


Planavsky, NJ, Grey, K, 2008, Stromatolite branching in the Neoproterozoic of the Centralian Superbasin, Australia: an investigation into sedimentary and microbial control of stromatolite morphology, Geobiology. 6: 33-45.

Ginsburg, RN, Planavsky, NJ, 2008, Diversity of Bahamian stromatolite substrates. in, Links Between Geological Processes, Microbial Activities & Evolution of Life. pg. 177-195. eds., Dilek Y, Furnes H, Muehlenbachs K. Springer academic press. Amsterdam.